Source Readings and Images

The Chapter 10: Music and Sound in the Silent Era

Articles and Excerpts

1907

Harris, Charles K. “Illustrating Song Slides.” Moving Picture World (9 March 1907).
“Trade Notes.” Moving Picture World (25 May 1907) [Female pianists].
"Posing for Song Pictures.” New York Sun, reprinted in Moving Picture World (22 June 1907).

1908

Lee, Van C. “The Value of a Lecture.” Moving Picture World (8 February 1908).  Responses.
Actors on the Films.” St. Louis Times, reprinted Moving Picture World (7 March 1908).
Films that Please.” Moving Picture World (21 March 1908) [dialogue behind the screen].
"Editorial: The Successful Exhibitor.” Moving Picture World (16 May 1908).
Editorial Notes and Comments.” Moving Picture World (30 May 1908).
“‘The Limit’ in Mommoth Moving Picture Place.” Variety (30 May 1908) [dialogue behind the screen].
Wiesberg, Frank. “The Limit in Moving Pictures Success at Auditorium.” Variety ( 6 June 1908) [dialogue behind the screen].
Trade Notes.” Moving Picture World (13 June 1908) [dialogue behind the screen].
Trade Notes.” Moving Picture World (20 June 1908) [Actologue].
Trade Notes.” Moving Picture World (4 July 1908) [Actologue].
The Actologue.” Moving Picture World (18 July 1908).
Caille & Kunsky Lose Their Best Man.” Moving Picture World (25 July 1908) [dialogue behind the screen].
The Kosmik Film Service.” Moving Picture World (25 July 1908) [dialogue behind the screen].
The Actologue.” Moving Picture World (8 August 1908).
Sime [pseud.]. “Oh, What Lungs!” [review]. Variety (22 August 1908) [dialogue behind the screen].
Wise, Sidney. “How Talking Pictures are Made.” Moving Picture World (22 August 1908).
Talking Pictures.” Moving Picture World (12 September 1908) [Actologue].
No title. Moving Picture World (10 October 1908) [Actologue].
The Actologue.” Moving Picture World (17 October 1908).
Detail Spells Success.” Moving Picture World (24 October 1908) [dialogue behind the screen].
Notes of the Trade.” Moving Picture World (21 November 1908
) [dialogue behind the screen].
The Actologue in Cleveland.” Moving Picture World (5 December 1908).
“Editorial: Illustrated Songs.” Moving Picture World (12 December 1908).

1909

Bush,W. Stephen. “The Human Voice as a Factor in the Moving Picture Show.” Moving Picture World (23 January 1909).
Clancy, James.  “The Human Voice as a Factor in the Moving Picture Show.” Moving Picture World (30 January 1909).
Middleton, P. Harvey. "Pictures That Speak." Technical World Magazine (March 1909).

1910

Bush, W. Stephen. “Special Lectures on Notable Films.” Moving Picture World (8 January 1910) Part I, Part II.
Making Plays While You Wait.” New York Times (30 January 1910).
Some Reasons for Vaudeville.” NY Times (30 January 1910).
Hoffman, H. F. “Drums and Traps.” Moving Picture World (23 July 1910).
Motion Pictures Are Made To Talk.” New York Times (27 August 1910).
The Talking Pictures.” New York Times (28 August 1910).
Martin, Clyde.  "Playing the Picture." Film Index (8 October 1910).
Martin, Clyde.  "Playing the Picture." Film Index (22 October 1910).
Martin, Clyde.  "Playing the Picture." Film Index (29 October 1910).
Martin, Clyde.  "Playing the Picture." Film Index (5 November 1910).
Martin, Clyde.  "Playing the Picture." Film Index (12 November 1910).
Martin, Clyde.  "Playing the Picture." Film Index (26 November 1910).
Sinn, Clarence E. "Music for the Picture." Moving Picture World (26 November 1910).
Martin, Clyde. "Playing the Picture." Film Index (3 December 1910).
Sinn, Clarence E. "Music for the Picture." Moving Picture World (3 December 1910).
Martin, Clyde. "Playing the Picture." Film Index (10 December 1910).
Sinn, Clarence E. "Music for the Picture." Moving Picture World (10 December 1910).
Sinn, Clarence E. "Music for the Picture." Moving Picture World (17 December 1910).
Martin, Clyde. "Playing the Picture." Film Index (24 December 1910).
Sinn, Clarence E. "Music for the Picture." Moving Picture World (24 December 1910).
Martin, Clyde. "Playing the Picture." Film Index (31 December 1910).
Sinn, Clarence E. "Music for the Picture." Moving Picture World (31 December 1910).

1911

Harrison, Louis Reeves.  "Jackass Music." Moving Picture World (21 January 1911).
When Actors Make Dramatic Moving Pictures Talk.” Washington Post (26 March 1911).
Bush, W. Stephen.  “When ‘Effects’ Are Unnecessary Noises.” Moving Picture World (9 September 1911).

1913

Crain, G. D. “Correspondence: Louisville.” Moving Picture World (4 January 1913) [Labor relations].
"The Kinetophone.” New York Times (5 January 1913).
Crain, G. D. “Correspondence: Louisville.” Moving Picture World (11 January 1913) [Labor relations].
Book Talking Pictures.” New York Times (13 January 1913).
Sinn, Clarence E. “Music for the Picture.” Moving Picture World (18 January 1913).
Observations By Our Man About Town.” Moving Picture World (18 January 1913) [Kinetophone].
Crain, G. D. “Correspondence: Louisville.” Moving Picture World (18 January 1913) [Labor relations].
Grau,Robert. “Growth of Motion Pictures.” Moving Picture World (25 January 1913) [Kinetophone].
Sinn, Clarence E. “Music for the Picture.” Moving Picture World (25 January 1913).
Facts and Comments.” Moving Picture World (1 February 1913).
Sinn, Clarence E. “Music for the Picture.” Moving Picture World (1 February 1913).
Aiken, Kenneth. “Thoughts for the Pianist.” Moving Picture World (1 February 1913).
Crain, G. D. “Correspondence: Louisville.” Moving Picture World (1 February 1913) [Labor relations].
New York Applauds the Talking Picture.” New York Times (18 February 1913).
Sargent, Epes Winthop. “Talking Pictures and Silent Drama.” Moving Picture World (22 February 1913).
Harrison, Louis Reeves. “The Edison Talking Machine.” Moving Picture World (1 March 1913).
Sinn, Clarence E. “Music for the Picture.” Moving Picture World (1 March 1913).
Sinn, Clarence E. “Music for the Picture.” Moving Picture World (8 March 1913).
McQuade, James S. “Chicago Letter.” Moving Picture World (15 March 1913).
Suffragettes Pose.” New York Times (20 March 1913) [Kinetophone].
Simpson, Alfred. “Letters to the Editor: Concerning Illustrated Songs.” Moving Picture World (22 March 1913).
College Students Writing Scenarios.” Moving Picture World (22 March 1913).
McQuade, James S. “Chicago Letter.” Moving Picture World (29 March 1913).
Sinn, Clarence E. “Music for the Picture.” Moving Picture World (29 March 1913).
Talking Picture Devices.” Moving Picture World (29 March 1913).

Pictures in Cincinnati Music Halls.” Moving Picture World (5 April 1913).
Remarkable List of New Electrical Instruments.” Moving Picture World (5 April 1913) [Deagan Bells].
A Forty-Five-Minute Talking Picture.” Moving Picture World (5 April 1913) [Chronophone]
Sinn, Clarence E. “Music for the Picture.” Moving Picture World (5 April 1913).
Crain, G. D.  “Correspondence: Louisville.” Moving Picture World (12 April 1913) [Kinetophone].
Sinn, Clarence E. “Music for the Picture.” Moving Picture World (12 April 1913).
Mayor In Talking Pictures.” New York Times (18 April 1913) [Kinetophone].
Bush, W. Stephen.  “The Future of the Single Reel.” Moving Picture World (19 April 1913).
Harris, Hugh King.  “A Day ‘At the Door.’” Moving Picture World (19 April 1913).
Our Own Representative. “British Trade Exhibition.” Moving Picture World (19 April 1913).
Observations By Our Man About Town.” Moving Picture World (19 April 1913) [Frohman].
McQuade, James. “Chicago Letter.” Moving Picture World (26 April 1913) [Cincinnati Music Hall].
Talking Pictures Popular.” Moving Picture World (26 April 1913) [Kinetophone].
Films for Posterity.” New York Times (1 May 1913) [Kinetophone].
Miss Turner Entertained At Cincinnati.” Moving Picture World (3 May 1913) [Cincinnati Music Hall]
Observations By Our Man About Town.” Moving Picture World (3 May 1913) [Kinetophone].
The Mayor In the 'Movies.'” New York Times (6 May 1913)
.
Sinn,Clarence E. “Music for the Picture.” Moving Picture World (17 May 1913).
“‘Big Bill’ Edwards Host To 5,000 Men.” New York Times (26 May 1913) [Kinetophone].
Sinn, Clarence E. “Music for the Picture.” Moving Picture World (31 May 1913). [Corrected Musical Suggestions]
Sinn, Clarence E. “Music for the Picture.” Moving Picture World (7 June 1913).
Clever Ruse.” New York Times (8 June 1913).
Sinn, Clarence E. “Music for the Picture,” Moving Picture World (21 June 1913).
Hoffman, Hugh. “The Talking Picture.” Moving Picture World (28 June 1913).
Picture Men At Odds.” New York Times (12 July 1913) [Kinetophone].


1914

Rathbun, John C. "Outline of a Program." In Motion Picture Making and Exhibiting (1914).
Fuld, Horace.  "Exhibiting the Picture." The New York Dramatic Mirror (14 January 1914).
Edison Submarine Coming.” New York Times (9 November 1914) [Kinetophone].

1915

Lindsay, Vachel, "The Orchestra, Conversation, and the Censorship." In The Art of the Moving Picture (1915)
Sargent, Epes Winthrop. "Music as an Advertisement." In Picture Theatre Advertising (1915).

1916

Berg, S. M. "Music for the Photoplay." Exhibitor's Trade Review (9 December 1916).
Berg, S. M. "Music for the Photoplay." Exhibitor's Trade Review (16 December 1916).

1917

Berg, S. M. "Music for the Photoplay." Exhibitor's Trade Review (6 January 1917).
Berg, S. M. "Music for the Photoplay." Exhibitor's Trade Review (3 February 1917). (Lawton Photoplay Orchestral Director.)
Ray, J. L.“Nashville Elite Opens as Feature House.” Moving Picture World (1 September 1917).
“Music One-Quarter of Show, Says Beach.” Moving Picture World (13 October 1917).

1918

Edel, Harold. “How It Is Done at the Strand,” Moving Picture World (12 January 1918).
Edel, Harold. “How It Is Done at the Strand.” Moving Picture World (19 January 1918).
"How Music is Made to Fit the Films." Literary Digest (26 January 1918).
Beynon, George W. “Music for the Picture.” Moving Picture World (2 February 1918).
Beynon, George W. “Music for the Picture.” Moving Picture World (23 March 1918).

1919

"Music in the Picture Theatre." Motion Picture News (22 November 1919). [Interview with Hugo Riesenfeld.]
"The 'Tour Through Grauman's' Stunt Complete." Motion Picture News (6 December 1919).

1920

Ingersoll, George. “The Hand Maiden of Motion Pictures.” Charlotte Observer (12 February 1920).

1921
Excerpt from Roadshow Instructions for The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse (1921).

1922

Breil, Joseph Carl. "Making the Musical Adaptation." In Opportunities in the Motion Picture Industry (1922).

1925

Riesenfeld, Hugo.  "The Advancement in Motion Picture Music." The American Hebrew (3 April 1925).
Rapee, Erno.  "Introduction" to Encyclopedia of Music for Pictures (1925).

1926

Clarke, Eric T. "An Exhibitor's Problems in 1925." Transactions of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers (January 1926).
Cazabon, Albert.  "Music and Musicians." Bioscope Service Supplement (30 September 1926).
Riesenfeld, Hugo.  "Music and Motion Pictures."  The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science (November 1926).

1927
Clarke, Eric T. "An Exhibitor's Problems in 1926." Transactions of Society of Motion Picture Engineers (January 1927).
Wagner, Victor. "Scoring a Motion Picture." Transactions of Society of Motion Picture Engineers (January 1927).
Townsend, Lewis M. "Problems of a Projectionist." Transactions of Society of Motion Picture Engineers (January 1927).
Cazabon, Albert.  "Music and Musicians." Bioscope Service Supplement (10 February 1927).
Cazabon, Albert.  "Music and Musicians." Bioscope Service Supplement (17 February 1927).
Clarke, Eric T. "An Exhibitor's Problems in 1927." Transactions of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers (1927).


1928
Turnbull, S. "The Cinema Pianist: How to Become One." Musical Mirror (March 1928).

1929

Mendoza, David. "The Theme Song." American Hebrew (15 March 1929).

Books
True, Lyle C.  How and What to Play for Moving Pictures (1914) (8 MB PDF)
Lang, Edith and George West. Musical Accompaniment of Motion Pictures (1920).

Images and Ads
(Note: many of the articles above also have images associated with them.)

Spencer's Lyceum (1907)
Nickelodeon plan (1908)
Talking Pictures (1908)
Musical Equipment (1910)
Bijou Theater, Boston, ad (1910)
Indecent Pictures, Chicago Daily News (1910)
No Stamping or Whistling Slide (c. 1910)
Ballyhoo, Film Index (1910)
Deagan Bells, Film Index (1910)
Barton Piano Attachment (1913); Second Ad
Deagan Bells (1913)
Excelsior Sound Effects Cabinet (1913)
Edison Kinetophone (1913); Second Ad
Prisoner of Zenda (1913); Second Ad
Hiawatha (1913); Second Ad
Dick Whittingham and His Cat (1913)
Cheyenne Massacre (1913)
Vitagraph (1913)
Civilization (1916)
Rialto (1916)
Man at the Movies (1918)
FilMusic Piano Rolls, ad (1919)

Photoplay Music

Zamecnik, J. S.  Sam Fox Moving Picture Music, vol. 1 (1913)
Zamecnik, J. S.  Sam Fox Moving Picture Music, vol. 2 (1913)
Kiefert, Karl. Allegro Agitato No. 1 (1916)  (321k PDF)
Andino, J. E.  Cavalry Parade No. 4 (1916) (1.9MB PDF)

Cue Sheets
Shoulder Arms (1918).
Hound of the Baskervilles (1921).
The Black Pirate (1926).
Hell's Heroes (1930).


Illustrated Songs
"My Mother Was a Northern Girl" (1902)
"Take Me Out To the Ball Game" (1908)—Sheet music available here.
"Goodbye, Girlie, and Remember Me" (1910)—Sheet music available here.

Patents
Barton Piano Attachment (1913, 1916)
Lawton Photo Play Orchestral Director (1916) (318k PDF)
Lawton Photoplay Orchestral Director (1923) (439k PDF)
Mintz Thematic Cue Sheet (1923)

Chapter 11: The Transition to Sound Film

Articles and Excerpts
Middleton, P. Harvey. "Pictures That Speak." Technical World Magazine (March 1909) (3MB PDF).
Motion Pictures Are Made To Talk.” New York Times (27 August 1910).
The Talking Pictures.” New York Times (28 August 1910).
"The Kinetophone.” New York Times (5 January 1913).
Book Talking Pictures.” New York Times (13 January 1913).
Observations By Our Man About Town.” Moving Picture World (18 January 1913).
New York Applauds the Talking Picture.” New York Times (18 February 1913).
Suffragettes Pose.” New York Times (20 March 1913).
Clever Ruse.” New York Times (8 June 1913).
Hoffman, Hugh. “The Talking Picture.” Moving Picture World (28 June 1913).
Picture Men At Odds.” New York Times (12 July 1913).
Edison Submarine Coming.” New York Times (9 November 1914).
"Sound Device in Wings." Motion Picture News (31 March 1928).
Larkin, Mark. "The Truth About Voice Doubling." Photoplay Magazine (July 1929). (Parts II, III, IV)

Images and Ads
Edison Kinetophone (1913)
Voice Doubling (1929)
American Federation of Musicians' Campaign against Sound Film (c. 1930) This blog post ("In the 1930s, robots were killing the music industry") contains three images from newspapers at the time.

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