Detailed Table of Contents

HEARING THE MOVIES: MUSIC AND SOUND IN FILM HISTORY

By James Buhler, David Neumeyer, and Rob Deemer

Published by Oxford University Press, ©2010


PREFACE

INTRODUCTION


PART I: The Sound Track and Film Narrative: Basic Terms and Concepts

Introduction to Part I


Chapter 1: The Sound Track and Narrative

Introduction

Basics: Image Track, Sound Track, Narrative

Sound Track Components and Narrative

Speech

Sound Effects

Music

Example for Sound Track Components and Narrative (1): Sleepless in Seattle, Second Botched Meeting

Example for Sound Track Components and Narrative (2): Good Will Hunting, Boston Common Scene

Summary

Exercise 1: Masking

Exercise 2: Using an Analysis Checklist


Chapter 2: The Musicality of the Sound Track: Concepts and Terminology

Introduction

Music and Sound

     Tempo

     Rhythm and Meter

     Volume

Timbre

     Filters and ”Distortion”

     Pitch

     Orchestration

     Timbre and Sound

Texture

     Density and Liveliness

     Monophony

     Homophony

     Melody and Accompaniment

     Polyphony

     A-Melodic (Accompaniment without Melody)

     Texture and Foreground–Background Functions

Example for Sound Track Analysis Using Musical Terms (1): Trzy Kolory: Bialy (Three Colors: White), The Shooting

Example for Sound Track Analysis Using Musical Terms (2): Atonement, Main Title Sequence and First Scene

Summary

Exercise 1: Analysis of Sound Track Elements (After Altman, Jones, and Tatroe)

Exercise 2: Using Graphic Displays for Sound (After Wierzbicki)


Chapter 3: Music, Sound, and the Space of Narrative: Concepts and Terminology

Introduction

Diegetic/Nondiegetic Music and Narrative

Example for Diegetic and Nondiegetic Music: Glory, Boston Party Scene

Onscreen/Offscreen Sound and Music

Offscreen Sound

Onscreen/Offscreen Sound Interaction: Examples

Ambiguity of Offscreen Sound: Underdetermination of Sound

Point of View Sound

Offscreen Sound and Music in Relation to the Diegesis

Voice-over

Audio Dissolve

Mickey-Mousing: Music as Effects ”Sweetener"

The Acousmêtre (Acoustical Being)

Summary

Exercise 1: Using an Events Table

Exercise 2: Using an (Updated) Analysis Checklist


Chapter 4: Music, Sound, and Time

Introduction

Transitions: The Sound Bridge and Hard Cuts

Sound Advance

Sound Lag

Sound Link

Sound Match

Hard Cut

Synchronization ("Playing with the Film”)

Example for Synchronization: Casablanca, Rick and Ilsa Meet

Counterpoint ("Playing against the Film”)

Summary Example for Synchronization and Counterpoint: Casablanca, After-Hours Scene

Summary

Exercise: The Commutation Test


     Interlude: Writing About Film Sound: Analysis and Description

Introduction

Analysis Report: Catch Me If You Can

Overview

1. Background

2. Synopsis

3. Music Cues

4. General Description of the Sound Track Elements and Their Balance

5. General Evaluation of the Sound Track

6. Description of Music’s Narrative Functions

Response Paper That Describes Music’s Narrative Functions

Compare–Contrast Paper Focusing on Music

Concluding Comments


PART II: Music, Film Form, and Film Style

Introduction to Part II


Chapter 5: Music in Film Form

Introduction

Runtime Segmentation

     Sync Points and Audiovisual Phrasing

     Music and Narrative Pacing

Examples for Music in Film Form

     Lady Windermere’s Fan

     Mildred Pierce

     Rashômon

     Psycho

     The Birdcage

     The Hours

Summary


Chapter 6: Music in Main Title and End-Credit Sequences

Introduction

Establishing Sequence

Meet Me in St. Louis, Titles and Opening Scene

Rashômon, Titles and Opening Scene

The Sound of Music, Overture and Title Sequence

Out of Africa, Prologue and Title Sequence

To Kill a Mockingbird, Music in the Main Title Sequence

Additional Examples

End-Credit Music

Films From 1939, End Credits

Out of Africa, Final Scene and End Credits

Bridget Jones’s Diary, End Credits Sequence

Additional Examples

Summary


Chapter 7: Music in Performance and Montage Scenes

Introduction

Performance Scene

To Have and Have Not, ”Am I Blue?"

The Sound of Music, ”The Laendler” (as Dance Scene)

The Sound of Music and Grease, Two Larger Performance Numbers

Additional Examples

Montage or Fantasy Scene

Gone with the Wind, Montage Sequence in the Prologue to Part 2

Pride & Prejudice, Three Montage Sequences

Bridget Jones’s Diary, ”Out of Reach” and ”I’m Every Woman"

Additional Examples

Summary


Chapter 8: Film Style and the Sound Track

Introduction

Style Topics and the Leitmotif

     Introduction: Theme, Motif, and Motive

     "Love" Themes

     The Leitmotif

     Style Topics

     Location and Stereotype

     Style Topics in Rebecca

A Note on Sound Topics

Summary


Chapter 9: Music in Character and Action Scenes

Introduction

Dialogue Scene

Rebecca, Terrace Scene

Additional Examples

Action Scene

Wo Hu Cang Lang (Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon), ”Theft of the Sword"

The Matrix, ”Trinity in a Jam"

Additional Examples

Love Scene

Out of Africa, ”On Safari: The Second Dinner"

Sound of Music, ”The Laendler” (as Love Scene)

Shadowlands, Four Scenes

Summary


     Interlude: Writing About Film Music: Interpretation

Introduction

Developing a Reading (1): Finding a Thesis

Thesis Options for Catch Me If You Can

Examples From the Published Literature

Developing a Reading (2): Reading against the Grain

Example: Casablanca against the Grain

            Summary


PART III: The Sound Track: A Technological History

Introduction to Part III


Chapter 10: Music and Sound in the Silent Era (1895–1929)

    Introduction

    The Early Years

    The Nickelodeon

    "Playing the Picture"

     Special Scores

The Picture Palace

     Stratification of Exhibition

     The Show

     Music and Sound Production in the Picture Palace

     Fitting the Picture

     Special Scores in the 1920s

     Road Shows

     Music on the Set

Summary

A Note on the Music for Silent Film Releases to VHS and DVD

 

Chapter 11: The Transition to Sound Film (1926–1932)

            Introduction

            Issues of Technology and Economics

 

     Sound Research in the 1920s

     Sound Film and the Standardization of Exhibition

     Sound and the Feature Film, 1927: The Jazz Singer

     The Transition From Silent to Sound Film

     Types of Early Sound Film

     Musicals in Early Sound Film

Mastering the Sound Track and Elements of Style

Production

     Production Phases

     Music Department

     Sound Department

            Summary


Chapter 12: Music and the Sound Track in the Classical Studio Era

    Introduction

    Issues of Technology and Economics

     Improvements in Recording Technology

     Rerecording

     Sound in the Theaters of the 1930s and 1940s

     The Great Depression and the Consolidation of Genres

The Sound Track in the Studio Era and Elements of Style

     The Classical System

     Foreground and Background

     Background(ed) Music and the Sound Track

     Scoring Practices

Production

     Production Phases

     Music Department

     Sound Department

Summary


Chapter 13: The Stereo Sound Track and the Post-Classical Era (1950–1975)

    Introduction

    Issues of High Fidelity and Stereo Sound

     Legal and Economic Challenges to the Industry

     Widescreen and Stereo Formats

     Magnetic Tape in Production and Postproduction

     Issues of Stereo

         Analysis: The Robe

     Stereo and Space

Stereo Sound, Magnetic Tape, and Elements of Style

     Issues of Aesthetics

     Scoring Practices

         Main Theme From High Noon

     Popular Song and the Underscore

     Soundtrack Albums

     Importance of Recordings

         Relation to the Musical

     Scoring With Recordings

Production

     Production Phases

     Music Department

     Sound Department

Summary


Chapter 14: The New Hollywood, Dolby Stereo, and the Emergence of Sound Design (1975–2000)

    Introduction

    Issues of Technology and Economics

     The New Hollywood and Saturation Booking

     Sound in the Multiplex

     Dolby Stereo in the Theaters

     Home Video and Limitations of Television

Sound Design and Elements of Style

     Issues of Aesthetics: Sound Design    

    Aesthetics and the Stereo Field

     Scoring Practices

     Aesthetic Issues of Cross-Marketing and Promotion

     Music Video Style

Production

     Production Phases

     Music Department

     Sound Department

Summary


Chapter 15: Music and Film Sound Today

    Introduction: The Digital Era

 

    Issues of Technology and Economics

     Digital Sound

     Digital Sound Formats

     Video, DVD, and Television Technologies

The Multiplex Palace

Digital Sound and Elements of Style

     Issues of Aesthetics

     Scoring Practices

     The Rise of Rap

Production

     Production Phases

     Music Department

         Music Production

         Music Postproduction

     Sound Department

         Sound Production

         Postproduction

         Dialogue

         Foley Effects

         Sound Effects

Summary


Afterword

Glossary

Credits

Notes

Index


(c) All original material on this website copyright by the authors.

ĉ
David Neumeyer,
Mar 6, 2009, 12:54 PM
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